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Resources for Study

Here, you will find articles and books, old and new, which will help you to dig deeper into this topic. I have tried, throughout the site, where possible, to provide reference links that are scholarly, and not proselytizing.

Internet Resources

Medieval Internet Sourcebook, Fordham University

Medieval Art & Architecture, Oxford University

Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies, ("The ORB")

Beginner's Guide to Romanesque Art, Smarthistory

Medieval Art  (blog)

Romanesque Objects (Museu de Vic, Catalonia)

Heaven, Hell, & Dying Well (Getty Museum)

Art of the Three Faiths (Getty Museum)

The Illuminated Apocalypse (Bamberg State Library)

Before Chartres (in Italian, use Google Translate)

Romanesque Art  in France (in French, use Google Translate)

The Monstrous Other in Medieval Art (Morgan Library)

Introducing Medieval Christianity (new website by young scholars)

Guide to Etruscan Art (Visual Arts, Cork) 

Etruscan Documentaries (weird gaps in 3 episodes)

Islamic Art History Online

Medieval Jewish History

Medieval Jews and the Arts(Metropolitan Museum, NYC)

Roman Religion (

Introductory Books

I encourage you to buy from independent bookstores, but for ease of reference, I'm linking these texts to Amazon.

Medieval Art, Marilyn Stokstad

Experiencing Medieval Art, Herbert Kessler

Being A Pilgrim, K. Ashley & M. Deegan (out of print and nearly impossible to find for a reasonable price, but if you can get your hands on it, well worth it)

Medieval Wall Paintings in English and Welsh Churches, R. Rosewell


Routledge Companion to Medieval Iconography, C. Hourihane 

Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created of Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain, M. Menocal

A Bestiary of Monsters in Greek Mythology, S. Syropoulos

Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Rolf Touman


How to Read Greek Vases, Joan Mertens

Greek Sanctuaries and Temple Architecture:  An Introduction, Mary Emerson

How to Read Churches:  A Crash Course in Ecclesiastical Architecture, Denis McNamara

Understanding Medieval Last Judgment Art, Carolyn Whitson

(pardon the shameless self-promotion)

Academic Resources

Akehurst, F. R. P., and Van D’Elden, Stephanie Cain. The Stranger in Medieval Society. University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

Ambrose, Kirk. “Attunement to the Damned of the Conques Tympanum.” Gesta, vol. 50, no. 1, 2011, pp. 1–17. JSTOR,

Ambrose, Kirk. The Marvellous and the Monstrous in the Sculpture of Twelfth-Century Europe . The Boydell Press, 2013.

Bacile, Rosa Maria, and McNeill, John. Romanesque and the Mediterranean : Points of Contact Across the Latin, Greek and Islamic Worlds, c. 1000 to c. 1250 . British Archaeological Association, 2015.

Beckwith, John. Early Medieval Art . Praeger, 1964.
Bruce, Scott G. The Penguin Book of Hell. Penguin Classics, 2018.

Caviness, Madeline H. “‘The Simple Perception of Matter’ and the Representation of Narrative, Ca. 1180-1280.” Gesta, vol. 30, no. 1, 1991, pp. 48–64. JSTOR, stable/767009.

Catlos, Brian A. The Victors and the Vanquished Christians and Muslims of Catalonia and Aragon, 1050-1300 . Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Catlos, Brian A. Kingdoms of Faith: A New History of Islamic Spain. 2013.

Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. Hybridity, Identity, and Monstrosity in Medieval Britain: On Difficult Middles. Palgrave Macmillan US, 2006, doi:10.1007/978-1-137-08670-9.

Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. Of Giants Sex, Monsters, and the Middle Ages . University of Minnesota Press, 1999.

Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. Monster Theory: Reading Culture . University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

Dale, Thomas E. A.. “Monsters, Corporeal Deformities, and Phantasms in the Cloister of St-Michel-De-Cuxa.” The Art Bulletin, vol. 83, no. 3, 2001, pp. 402–436. JSTOR,

D’Emilio, James. Culture and Society in Medieval Galicia : a Cultural Crossroads at the Edge of Europe . Brill, 2015.

Denny, Don. “The Last Judgment Tympanum at Autun: Its Sources andMeaning.” Speculum, vol. 57, no. 3, 1982, pp. 532–547. JSTOR, 2848692.

Derbes, Anne. “A Crusading Fresco Cycle at the Cathedral of Le Puy.” The Art Bulletin, vol. 73, no. 4, 1991, pp. 561–576. JSTOR,

Dodds, E. R. (Eric Robertson). Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety : Some Aspects of Religious Experience from Marcus Aurelius to Constantine . Cambridge University Press, 1965.

Dodds, Jerrilynn Denise., et al. The Arts of Intimacy : Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Making of Castilian Culture . Yale University Press, 2008.

Dodds, Jerrilynn Denise. Al-Andalus : the Art of Islamic Spain . Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992.

Dodds, Jerrilynn Denise. Architecture and Ideology in Early Medieval Spain. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.

Donceel-Voûte, Pauline. “The (In)Visible Evil in Sacred Space: Codes, Keys and Clues to Reading Its Image.” Zeichentragende Artefakte Im Sakralen Raum: Zwischen Präsenz Und UnSichtbarkeit, edited by Wilfried E. Keil et al., 1st ed., De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, 2018, pp. 17–54. JSTOR,

Dynes, Wayne R. “Art, Language, and Romanesque.” Gesta, vol. 28, no. 1, 1989, pp. 3– 10. JSTOR,

Forsyth, Ilene H. “Narrative at Moissac: Schapiro's Legacy.” Gesta, vol. 41, no. 2, 2002, pp. 71–93. JSTOR,

Glass, Dorothy F. “The Sculpture of the Baptistry of Parma:
Context and Meaning.” Mitteilungen Des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz, vol. 57, no. 3, 2015, pp. 255–291. JSTOR,

Hamill, Sarah, and Luke, Megan R. Photography and Sculpture : the Art Object in Reproduction. The Getty Research Institute, 2017.

Hourihane, Colum. The Routledge Companion to Medieval Iconography. Routledge, 2017. Hoving, Thomas P. F. “Italian Romanesque Sculpture.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bulletin, vol. 23, no. 10, 1965, pp. 345–348. JSTOR,

Jones, Malcolm. “Folklore Motifs in Late Medieval Art I: Proverbial Follies and Impossibilities.” Folklore, vol. 100, no. 2, 1989, pp. 201–217. JSTOR, stable/1260297.

Kenaan-Kedar, Nurith. “The Margins of Society in Marginal Romanesque
Sculpture.” Gesta, vol. 31, no. 1, 1992, pp. 15–24. JSTOR,

Kessler, Herbert L. “Christ the Magic Dragon.” Gesta, vol. 48, no. 2, 2009, pp. 119– 134. JSTOR,

Knicely, Carol. “Food for Thought in the Souillac Pillar: Devouring Beasts, Pain and the Subversion of Heroic Codes of Violence.” RACAR: Revue D'art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 24, no. 2, 1997, pp. 14–37. JSTOR,

Krindle, C. Ruth. “The Theophilus Relief at Souillac and the Eleventh-Century Reforms of the Church.” RACAR: Revue D'art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 40, no. 1, 2015, pp. 27–40. JSTOR,

Ladis, Andrew. “The Legend of Giotto's Wit and the Arena Chapel.” The Art Bulletin, vol. 68, no. 4, 1986, pp. 581–596. JSTOR,

Lane, Barbara G. “‘Requiem Aeternam Dona Eis’: The Beaune ‘Last Judgment’ and the Mass of the Dead.” Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, vol. 19, no. 3, 1989, pp. 167–180. JSTOR,

Low, Peter. “‘You Who Once Were Far Off’: Enlivening Scripture in the Main Portal at Vézelay.” The Art Bulletin, vol. 85, no. 3, 2003, pp. 469–489. JSTOR, stable/3177383.

Maguire, Henry. “The Profane Aesthetic in Byzantine Art and Literature.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, vol. 53, 1999, pp. 189–205. JSTOR,

Magrill, Barry. “Figurated Corbels on Romanesque Churches: The Interface of Diverse Social Patterns Represented on Marginal Spaces.” RACAR: Revue D'art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 34, no. 2, 2009, pp. 43–54. JSTOR, 42630804.

Mann, Janice. Romanesque Architecture and Its Sculptural Decoration in Christian Spain, 1000-1120 Exploring Frontiers and Defining Identities . University of Toronto Press, 2009.

Mathews, Karen Rose. “Reading Romanesque Sculpture: The Iconography and Reception of the South Portal Sculpture at Santiago De Compostela.” Gesta, vol. 39, no. 1, 2000, pp. 3–12. JSTOR,

Mederos, Judith E. “Influence of Barbarian Art on Romanesque Art.” Gesta, 1963, pp. 4– 7. JSTOR,

O'Hear, N., O'Hear, A. Picturing the Apocalypse: The Book of Revelation in the Arts Over Two Millennia. Oxford University Press, 2015.

Olsen, Glenn W. “On the Frontiers of Eroticism: The Romanesque Monastery of San Pedro De Cervatos.” Mediterranean Studies, vol. 8, 1999, pp. 89–104. JSTOR,

Padgett, J. Michael., et al. The Centaur’s Smile : the Human Animal in Early Greek Art . Princeton University Art Museum, 2003.

Patterson, Serina. “Reading the Medieval in Early Modern Monster Culture.” Studies in Philology, vol. 111, no. 2, 2014, pp. 282–312., doi:10.1353/sip.2014.0008.

Roberts, Helene E. Art History Through the Camera’s Lens. Routledge, 1995. Schapiro, Meyer. Romanesque Art. G. Braziller, 1977.

Schapiro, Meyer. Late Antique, Early Christian and Mediaeval Art. G. Braziller, 1979.

Schapiro, Meyer, and Finn, David. The Romanesque Sculpture of Moissac. G. Braziller, 1985.

Seidel, Linda. Legends in Limestone : Lazarus, Gislebertus, and the Cathedral of Autun . University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Seidel, Linda. “Rethinking ‘Romanesque;" Re-Engaging Roman[z].” Gesta, vol. 45, no. 2, 2006, pp. 109–123. JSTOR,

Strickland, Diana. Saracens, Demons, and Jews: Making Monsters in Medieval Art. Princeton University Press, 2003.

Sütterlin, Christa. “Universals in Apotropaic Symbolism: A Behavioral and Comparative Approach to Some Medieval Sculptures.” Leonardo, vol. 22, no. 1, 1989, pp. 65–74. JSTOR,

Syropoulos, Spyros D. A Bestiary of Monsters in Greek Mythology . Archaeopress Publishing Ltd., 2018.

Terpak, Frances. “Pilgrimage or Migration? A Case Study of Artistic Movement in the Early Romanesque.” Zeitschrift Für Kunstgeschichte, vol. 51, no. 3, 1988, pp. 414–
427. JSTOR,

Toman, Rolf., and Bednorz, Achim. Romanesque : Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Könemann, 1997.

Vernon, Eleanor. “Romanesque Churches of the Pilgrimage Roads.” Gesta, 1963, pp. 12– 15. JSTOR,

Travis, William. “Representing ‘Christ as Giant’ in Early Medieval Art.” Zeitschrift Für Kunstgeschichte, vol. 62, no. 2, 1999, pp. 167–189. JSTOR,

Travis, William J. “Of Sirens and Onocentaurs: A Romanesque Apocalypse at Montceaux-L'Etoile.” Artibus Et Historiae, vol. 23, no. 45, 2002, pp. 29–62. JSTOR,

Walker, Rose. Art in Spain and Portugal from the Romans to the Early Middle Ages : Routes and Myths. Amsterdam University Press, 2016.

Williams, John. “Meyer Schapiro in Silos: Pursuing an Iconography of Style.” The Art Bulletin, vol. 85, no. 3, 2003, pp. 442–468. JSTOR,

Academic Resources
Internet Resources
Introductory Books
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